Lymphoma is a group of cancers that begin in the lymphatic system. Tissues and organs that are essential for the production, storage and transport of white blood cells comprise the lymphatic or lymph system. Lymphoma attacks these tissues and organs at the cellular level. The white blood cells, also known as lymphocytes, start producing at a faster rate. It has been observed that certain lymphocytes have a particular abnormal cell known as HL. Reed-Sternberg. The presence or absence of these cells further leads to two main categories of lymphoma.
The cells are examined under a microscope. If Reed-Sternberg cells are detected, then the patient has Hodgkin’s lymphoma. If Reed-Sternberg cells are absent, then it is diagnosed as Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Here is the further division on the various types of lymphoma:
1. Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin’s disease: This type of Hodgkin’s lymphoma has been observed to be quite rare. Just around 1 percent of lymphoma cases have been reported as Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin’s disease. Despite the low number of cases, it is quite aggressive. This type of lymphoma has been mostly diagnosed in a patient who is 30 years or above. Risk factors include a weak immune system or the presence of autoimmune infections such as HIV. People with this disease have normal lymphocytes as well as abnormal lymphocytes with HL. Reed-Sternberg cells.
- Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s lymphoma: Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s lymphoma is one of the most common types of lymphoma. Approximately 70 percent of lymphoma cases have to been reported to be nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. This cancer has been mainly seen among young adults. Lymph nodes that have sclerosis or scar tissues are more susceptible to this form of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Although it is the commonest forms of lymphoma, it is also completely curable. Successful treatments have been reported by patients.
- Lymphocyte-rich Hodgkin’s disease: This type of Hodgkin’s lymphoma has been observed in nearly 5 percent of all lymphoma cases. It is more common in men than in women. In diagnostic tests under the microscope, the presence of normal lymphocytes, as well as those with RS cells, are observed.
2. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- B-cell lymphoma: The B-cell lymphoma is known to be the most aggressive forms of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Also known as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or DLBCL, it is fast-growing cancer. This type of lymphoma occurs due to the presence of abnormal B cells in the blood. It damages the structure of the lymph node. The early signs are enlarged lymph nodes, night sweats, unusual weight loss, loss of appetite, extreme tiredness or fatigue, fever, and extreme itchiness. A person may also experience shortness of breath. Additionally, there can be abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloody stools, and cough.
- T-cell lymphoma: This type of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is rare. Approximately 15 percent of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases have been reported to be T-cell lymphoma. There are many types of T-cell lymphoma. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is the most common one. It affects the skin, internal organs, lymph nodes, and blood. Signs and symptoms include patches of flat scaly skin, thickly raised plaques, and itching. Moreover, there can be tumors that may develop into ulcers. A person may have recurrent infections, susceptibility to bruises and bleeding, fatigue, fever, chills, constipation, abdominal fullness, and tendency to frequently urinate.
- Burkitt’s lymphoma: This is one of the rarest types of lymphoma. It is known to be quite aggressive. Risk factor includes a weak immune system. It has been reported in children living in regions with high incidences of malaria. People with HIV are also susceptible to this type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Symptoms include night sweats, fever, and weight loss. Also, there can be a distortion of facial bones, abdominal swelling, intestinal obstruction, enlarged thyroid, and enlarged tonsils. The lymph nodes may also grow rapidly.